Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly. [82], On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes. [59], Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread. Enriching and preserving the gene bank collection to make potatoes adaptive to diverse environmental conditions is seen as a pressing issue due to climate change. [5][6][7] In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. [21][22], The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. De Latijnse benaming Solanaceae zou staan voor 'troostrijke knol'. EWG’s Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases. [74] Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, black leg, powdery mildew, powdery scab and leafroll virus. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. andigena Cultivars on Escherichia coli and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells In Vitro, GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION, STABILITY AND CO-HERITABILITY OF TUBER INTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) CULTIVARS IN ETHIOPIA, Effect of Physical, Chemical and Physiochemical Treatments of Surface Sterilisation on Medicinal Plants Salvadora persica and Solanum surattense for In-vitro Propagation. In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips. Proper usage and audio pronunciation of the word Solanum tuberosum. At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. [8], Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[94] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. [65] While a normal potato tuber has 12–20 mg/kg of glycoalkaloid content, a green potato tuber contains 250–280 mg/kg and its skin has 1500–2200 mg/kg. Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish. Authors Myron A Bruce 1 2 , Jessica L Shoup Rupp 3 4 Affiliations 1 Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. While they are herbaceous perennials by nature, they are grown as annuals for harvesting. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the parent, whereas those propagated from seed produce a range of different varieties. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes four centuries ago, and it is estimated that by the year 2020 over two billion people will depend on it for food, feed, or income. The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category (such as "red", russet, "white", or King Edward), growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings). Bryndzové halušky is the Slovak national dish, made of a batter of flour and finely grated potatoes that is boiled to form dumplings. [114], During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the word's false origin. [34] In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. OneIndia Hindi Dictionary offers the meaning of Solanum tuberosum in hindi with pronunciation, synonyms, antonyms, adjective and more related words in Hindi. [69][70], New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations. Information about Solanum tuberosum in the … Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D., and Weingartner, D.P. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. [113], The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. What does solanum tuberosum mean? Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips (crisps). De aardappel (Solanum tuberosum) is een cultuurgewas, dat behoort tot de nachtschadefamilie, net als de tomaat, paprika en tabak.De aardappel is een plant die in ondergrondse knollen een energievoorraad in de vorm van zetmeel aanlegt. What does solanum tuberosum mean? The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. Het zetmeel slaat de plant op in voor de mens eetbare stengelknollen, die net als de plant zelf aardappelen of aardappels worden genoemd. They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems. What does Solanum tuberosum mean? BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose. An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.[71]. [47][48], In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.[49][50][51]. De aardappel: Solanum tuberosum. /* unofficial, Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient. In Ecuador, the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas, a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland, in areas where westerly winds reduce aphid attack and the spread of potato virus pathogens. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. [43] Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. [64] Since then, breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal. [28] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex). Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. [15] In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants … He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.[116]. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turkey (Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012). Information and translations of solanum tuberosum in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Solanum tuberosum 'Grimpantii' - Klimmende Aardappel Solanum tuberosum ‘Grimpantii’ – Klimmende Aardappel morningglory 1 maart 2018 Alles , Eenjarige planten , Plantencatalogus , S E raw cassava and N. Olsen. [108] German fries and various version of Potato salad are part of German cuisine. [67] These locations are selected for their cold, hard winters that kill pests and summers with long sunshine hours for optimum growth. The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans. « hide 10 20 30 40 50 maigklesgq qkissttnls sfpendliel kwqngqivmq gqsssakkst 60 70 80 90 100 vhnnfqssas gdrdkytgns stskigkfgl mdtmlndmsl svptdeldli 110 120 130 140 150 qedegvpwlg ypaddslqqd ycaqllpeis gvtaneqsrq svfglinkrg 160 170 180 190 200 ssdkmigdsh svpvhnavnf eqrntskvsp ssrfsplssl psqkghasip 210 220 230 240 250 tlesgvsdif ssknsntpms vlgdsnqska sagdvksnki qkqnmpgnrs 260 270 … Solanum tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers. Global warming is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food. noun. [41], Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. Roast potatoes are commonly served as part of a Sunday roast dinner and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes, such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, and bangers and mash. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." [3] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas independently in multiple locations,[4] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. In South Asia, the potato is a very popular traditional staple. G raw sweet potato [11][12], The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. The Scottish Miller 1700–1900. [19] Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures (10 to 16 °C or 50 to 60 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible. Meaning of solanum tuberosum. In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains (or other foods) may be different from the values in this table. Solanum tuberosum L., 1753: Fiur da pòmm da tèra. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Definition of SOLANUM TUBEROSUM • Dictionary meaning of Solanum tuberosum • Words with similar meaning as Solanum tuberosum tuberosum and spp. A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire, especially Liverpool, is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. It was the first toy ever advertised on television. (Solanum komt van solanine de giftige stof die in de vrucht zit, niet in de knol). Hypernyms (species): Solanales - order; Solanaceae - family; Solanoideae - subfamily; Solaneae - tribe; Solanum - genus; Hyponyms (species): For varieties see Potato#Varieties on Wikipedia. The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[2]. [117], "Spud" redirects here. Solanum tuberosum, better known as the potato, is a popular vegetable crop for home gardeners. B raw unenriched long-grain white rice Meaning of solanum tuberosum. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire. Solanum tuberosum lectin consists of two identical 50 kDa subunits. The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled. [35] Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Solanum Tuberosum but also gives extensive definition in English language. [13][14] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related. Meaning of Solanum tuberosum. Approves Modified Potato. [92] Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. 2003. There are also four diploid species (with 24 chromosomes): S. stenotomum, S. phureja, S. goniocalyx, and S. ajanhuiri. However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean. [81], Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant. In Germany, Northern (Finland, Latvia and especially Scandinavian countries), Eastern Europe (Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and Poland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers). (2001), South America: (English and Spanish): Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Eurasia: Armenia, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country,, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. Like potatoes in general, they can be prepared by boiling, baking, frying, and roasting. [a][83], Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10–12 months. At this phase, several factors are critical to a good yield: optimal soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient availability and balance, and resistance to pest attacks. Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory. [60] In particular, consuming reheated or cooled potatoes that were previously cooked may yield a lower GI effect. Like the tomato, the potato is a nightshade in the genus Solanum, and the vegetative and fruiting parts of the potato contain the toxin solanine which is dangerous for human consumption. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Kleinkopf G.E. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. [42], Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. Solanum definition is - nightshade. [24][54], According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900. The consistent parenchyma tissue, the clonal nature of the plant and the low metabolic activity provide a very nice "model tissue" for experimentation. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Definition of solanum tuberosum in the dictionary. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. [112] High-density potatoes are desirable in the production of dehydrated mashed potatoes, potato crisps and french fries.[112]. del distrito de Vilcashuaman, Ayacucho--Peru, mediante AFLP, Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Activities of Polyphenol Extracts from Solanum tuberosum spp. [105] The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. (Solánum tuberósum.) In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. 1 potatoes are the highest quality and No. [37], Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[38] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars. It is generally either a Yukon Gold potato or a red potato, called gold creamers[78] or red creamers respectively, and measures approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties. Z raw plantains The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world.

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